President of America
President of America: The president of the United States is the head of State and Government of the United States. It is the highest political office in the country by influence and recognition. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government.
Among other powers and responsibilities, Article II of the Constitution of the United States entrusts to the president the “faithful execution” of the federal law, makes the president the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, authorizes him to appoint executive and judicial officers with the advice and consent of the Senate places it at the forefront of the foreign policy of the United States, and allows the president to grant pardons or moratoria.
The president is elected by indirect suffrage by an electoral college (or by the House of Representatives if the electoral college does not grant a majority of votes to any candidate) for a term of four years. Since the ratification of the Twenty-Second Amendment in 1951, no person can be elected to the office of president more than twice. In the event of death, dismissal, resignation or resignation of a president, the vice president assumes the presidency.
To date, there have been a total of forty-four people who have taken office and forty-five presidencies. This occurs because President Grover Cleveland served in two non-consecutive terms and is counted in chronological order as well as the twenty-second as the twenty-fourth president. Of the people elected to the post, four died during their term of office due to natural causes, one resigned and four were killed. The first president was George Washington, who was invested in 1789 after a unanimous vote of the electoral college. William Henry Harrison was the one that less time remained in the position, with only 32 days, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, with its 12 years in the position, was the one that remained by more time and the only president who served by more than two mandates (won the presidential elections four times).
The current president is Republican Donald Trump, who took office on January 20, 2017.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, the hegemonic role of the United States in the international political and economic scenario has led the president of this country to be a globally known figure and, due to the country’s status as the sole superpower, in 2009 the Forbes magazine called its owner “the most powerful person in the world.”
The Treaty of Paris (1783) ended the War of Independence and recognized the constitution of the Thirteen Colonies as the United States of America, but with an unstable governmental structure. The Second Continental Congress had drafted the Articles of Confederation in 1777, describing a permanent Confederation, but granting the Congress of the Confederation (the only federal institution) little power to finance itself or to ensure compliance with its resolutions. In part, this reflected the anti-monarchical vision of the revolutionary period and the new American system was explicitly designed to prevent the rise of an American tyrant to replace the British monarch.
However, during the economic depression due to the collapse of the continental dollar after the US Revolution, the viability of the US government was threatened by political unrest in several states, the debtors’ commitment to using popular government to eliminate their debts and the Apparent inability of the Continental Congress to face the public obligations assumed during the war. Congress also seemed unable to become a forum for productive cooperation between states, which encouraged trade and economic development. In response to this problem a constitutional convention was convened, initially to reform the Articles of Confederation, but which subsequently began the design of a new system of government that would include greater executive power while retaining an essential control and balance with the idea of restricting any imperial tendency in the presidency.
The people who presided over the Continental Congress during the Revolutionary period, and conforming to the Articles of Confederation, bore the title of “President of the United States in the Reunited Congress” and were often abbreviated as “President of the United States.” The position had little clear executive power. With the ratification of the Constitution in 1787, a separate executive power was created, headed by the president of the United States.
The executive authority of the president under the Constitution, moderated by the control of the legislative and judicial powers of the federal government, was designed to solve the political problems faced by the newly created nation and to try to overcome future challenges, always preventing the rise to power of an autocrat in a cautious nation against the monarchical authorities.
President of America: Powers and duties
The first power conferred on the president by the US Constitution is the legislative branch of the presidential veto. The so-called “Clause of Presentation” (Presentment Clause) requires that any bill passed by Congress be presented to the president before it can become law. Once a legal standard has been presented, the president has three options:
Sign it; the legislative project becomes law.
Vete it and return it to Congress with its objections; the bill does not become law unless each House of Congress votes to annul the veto with a favorable two-thirds majority of the House.
Do nothing. In that case, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation. After 10 days, excluding Sundays, two situations can occur:
If Congress is still in session, the bill becomes law.
If it is not possible to return the proposal because Congress has finished its session, the project does not become law. This situation is often referred to as a “pocket veto”, since the president, leaving the bill “in his pocket” in that period, could not directly veto a law, but would do so in practice. James Madison was the first president to use the “pocket veto” in 1812.
President of America: In 1996, the Congress tried to change the power of the presidential veto with the Line Item Veto Act. The legislation authorized the president to sign any bill of expenditure in law at the same time that it eliminated certain items of expenses within the proposal, in particular, any new expense, any amount of discretionary expenses, or any new limited tax benefit. If the president removed an article, Congress could approve that particular article again. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, the Congress could annul the veto with the ordinary procedure, that is, with the vote of two thirds in both Houses. In the Clinton case against the City of New York (1998), the US Supreme Court ruled that this modification of the presidential veto power was unconstitutional.